Peoples of Central, Western Asia
The peoples of Central Asia
In Central Asia in the first Millennium BC were rich region located along the river valleys of Syr-Darya, the Zerafshan, Kashka Darya, Amu Darya, Murgab, Tejan. These were agricultural oases, cultural life which rested on an artificial irrigation based on removing channels from the rivers originating in the mountains. In the neighbourhood of the oases in the steppes the nomads lived in different tribes.
Here lived a population of Iranian origin — the Sogdians along the rivers Zerafshan and Kashka-Darya, Khorezm — in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya, Bactrians to the South from the Amu-Darya, — belonged to the people, mentioned since antiquity.
Depending on the farmers was agricultural population, hardworking farming oases, where along with the wheat and barley were cultivated cotton, rice, grapes, mulberry and fruit trees.
There was a writing (many of the documents in the Sogdian language came to our time). Transit trade was strengthened cultural links with Western Asia, the Caucasus, Iran, India, China, which resulted in the distribution in the cities of Central Asia, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism. In 60-ies of VI century BC in the steppes of today’s Kazakhstan has developed a powerful Empire of nomads-Turks, subjugated and cultural oases.
In half of VII century the Arabs conquered modern Turkmenistan, and in the beginning of VIII century the area to the North-East of the Amu Darya river (Transoxiana — literally: “beyond the river”). The Arabs defeated and drove as Turkic nomads, and had penetrated to the region of Ferghana by the Chinese. After the collapse of the Arab Caliphate in Central Asia formed the state of Samanids (874-1005 years) its capital in Bukhara, in which the main role played by the Tajik element. In the VIII—X centuries the oases of Central Asia has achieved a high prosperity; a very developed city life; In the end X — the beginning of CHB. Central Asia East of the district, the Amu-Darya was conquered by nomadic Turkic tribes who converted to Islam and United under the rule of the dynasty of Karaha-nedov. The Karakhanid state split into fiefdoms.
The peoples of southwest Asia
Southwest Asia includes: Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula and the Iranian plateau. Historically here, starting with the Sumerians
historically rich region. In the region there was the Persian power, the Ottoman Empire, Israel survived the invasion of Arabs, Mongols, Seljuk Turks. Many national conflicts, wars. They all affected the culture of the local people, have influenced the process etnogeneza
1. The Indo-European family(Farsi, Pashto, Tajik, Kurdish, Lenski, Bakhtiari, belgijski) in addition to and armeiski
2. The Afro-Asiatic family(Arabic, Hebrew)
3. Altaic family(Turkish, Azerbaijani)
Peoples: Turks, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, Persians, Turkmens, Afghans, Uzbeks and Arabs.
The vast majority of the people are employed in agriculture. Developed in the neck. places of extraction of raw materials, particularly oil. Dominated by plough agriculture, and nomadic pastoralism(nomadism). In places the existence of large rivers there are well developed irrigation system. OSN. crops – wheat, palm, barley, in subtropical areas, fruits, grapes, dates. Livestock – sheep, horses, camels, cattle. In NEK. developed areas of nomadic herding. 3 types – Meridian, vertical, of stationary.
The majority of the rural population. The appearance of the settlements depends greatly on habitat and cultural traditions. Zemledelcheskiy colonies of large Cumulus with irregular buildings. Important places – marketplace, mosque(Church), coffee, tea. The settlement of nomadic seasonal settlements. Types of buildings – wattle and daub or of brick raw houses of the farmers, in the mountains, stone houses, the rich houses are built of baked brick.
Men’s suit – wide below the belt a shirt with sleeves, pants and the upper body garment – a cloak or robe. + many local characteristics, type of keffiyeh headscarf and the FEZ. Women’s clothing – a shirt-dress covering all the body narrow, long pants. On a head – handkerchief.
Family law is based on Sharia law, though polygamy is rare. For the bride give a ransom – the ransom. For Muslims it is desirable artacademy marriage, live in nomadic tribal traditions endogamy. The families of small farmers, nomads meet large.
Rich folk oral creativity. The tradition of Arabic literature. Traditional medicine. Every nation has its own rich tradition, known for example Kurdish dances. Religion: Islam(Sunnism, Shiism, etc. ), Christianity, Judaism.